Thursday, July 12, 2018

Indoor CO2 may slow fat loss and cut your energy....Today's post:  Thursday, 7-12-2018

Not that long ago I discovered that nose breathing and nose breathing while doing cardio can increase your fitness and red blood cells in part because mouth breathing lowers your CO2 level too low.

And, low blood levels of CO2 tends to produce feelings of anxiety or even panic.

More than that it has worked for me:

I feel less anxious and can function better when I am stressed.  I’m clearly more fit.  And my blood pressure readings dropped 5 to 10 points!

I have times in each day that my feeling of energy is low & I still have more belly fat than I want.

With a bedroom that’s often too noisy or too hot and a schedule with 5 to 5 and half hours of sleep a night, I don’t need more explanation than that.  These factors clearly are the main reasons for my periods of low energy and likely help slow my metabolism somewhat.

But what if even some of the low energy and metabolism could be reversed?

I’d love to have 5 pounds less fat and an inch smaller waist and feel more energetic more often unless I’m napping.

According to an email today by Nick Pineault it may be that CO2 levels inside at my workplace and home are too high and that lowering them to what we evolved to operate on might have that effect!

His article says that people evolved to live mostly outside at a time when CO2 levels were about 300 ppm or less.

In fact CO2 levels were measured at 310 ppm in 1944, the year I was born.

They are over 406 ppm now and rising.

But the surprising thing is that inside many homes and workplaces CO2 levels are above 800 to 1,000 ppm.

"A document created by the US air force and released by the Defense Technical Information Center stated that 1,000 ppm might be fine for around 20% of the population, but that in the case of 80% of people -- it will cause fatigue and lethargy. (2)

Oops. If this is accurate, this means that around 25 to 40% of all employees in the US are getting exposed to energy-sapping levels of CO2."

Letting a good bit of outside air in can lower the level of CO2 below 500 to 600 ppm.

But if it’s 25 or 105 degrees F outside or you live near a freeway this can be a problem.

Leaving one window open and using more heat or air conditioning to compensate can work.

Large devices to lower CO2 are being built now to help slow global warming.  At some point small enough devices to use at home and at work will be available.

Until then taking brief breaks outside; leaving one window open; going to a nearby park with trees a few times a week or moving to Hawaii or a lower pollution area away from freeways where you live now can all help. 

Labels: ,

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

Keep telomeres long to slow aging....Today's post:  Tuesday, 7-10-2018

There are several ways to slow aging.   

One is to remove senescent cells, particularly from your mitochondria.

Keeping your mitochondria healthy and adding new ones can also help. 

But in some ways the most important one is to have your healthy cells make perfect copies so your new cells work properly.

As many of you know, at the end of each strand of your DNA there are end caps that ensure the DNA that makes you up stays the same each time your cells divide.

These end caps are called telomeres.  When they are long and stay that way, your cells make perfect copies.

When they are too short or disappear your cells begin to make imperfect copies.  When this happens some, your body works less well and your appearance changes.

When it happens so much the process cascades, the person begins to look older quite fast and dies soon after that.

Some people have heredity that seems to keep telomeres longer.

But there are many things that can not only keep telomeres from getting shorter, they can cause shorter telomeres to get longer!

Best of all some of them are quite doable.

Being nice and warm to people most of the time; resolving differences without rancor or permanent problems; and having a good relationship with your friends, family, and people you meet tends to keep telomeres long.

Avoiding severe stress, being resilient and flexible and able to find ways to beat challenging threats and learning how to physically turn down stress reactions tends to keep telomeres long.

Those work; but can sometimes not go well.

Are there any you can do easily that work anyway?

Last Friday, 7-6-2018 Dr Al Sears emailed some actions you can take that do just that because the messenger your body uses to lengthen telomeres is telomerase.

So if you do things to turn it on, your telomeres get longer.

In his email Dr Sears said this:  “Dr Sears said this:

"When you turn telomerase on, your telomeres gradually get longer. Your body starts creating younger cells. And by activating telomerase you can improve and support your heart function, kidney function, memory and vision. You can recharge your sexual desire, breathe easier, look younger and feel younger.

In other words, you can reverse the aging process."

1.  In one study of telomerase, people took either a placebo or 2,000 IU of vitamin D a day. After only four months, telomerase activity in the vitamin D group skyrocketed by 19.2%. Those taking the dummy pill had no change.

This is natural vitamin D3 he is talking about.  Man made vitamin D2 neither works as well nor is safe to take enough of to produce this effect.

Vitamin D3 by contrast is safe to take up to at least a bit over 20,000 iu day that people sometimes get from summer sun exposure.

It is wise to take D3 with vitamin K2 since the calcium D3 activates gets sent by K2 to build your bones and removes it from your blood vessels.

I mention this because there is reason to believe that taking 10,000 iu a day of D3 or more is even more effective to much more effective in boosting telomerase.

People who do so heal faster and better from injuries than people who take 2,000 iu day. Recent studies even showed this is true for injuries to your heart!

2.  “Raising the level of vitamin C in your cells stimulates telomerase. It could slow down the shortening of telomeres up to 62%.4

To protect telomeres, I recommend taking 5,000 mg to 8,000 mg every day. Be sure to divide that amount into smaller doses throughout the day.”

This is expensive and logistically hard and can upset your stomach. 

I hope that the 2500 mg I take works as well.  I take one capsule of vitamin C morning and evening and one capsule of calcium ascorbate with 500 mg of C each morning and evening.  And, I take a B Complex with 500 mg of vitamin C each morning.

This is heart protective directly in addition to any boost to telomerase.

3.  Omega 3 oils boost telomerase also:

“Omega-3 fatty acids activate telomerase. A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found patients with the lowest levels of omega-3 fats had the fastest telomere shortening. Those with the highest levels had the slowest shortening.5

Your body can’t make omega-3s. You have to get it from food. Some of the best food sources are wild, cold-water fish like fresh mackerel, pink salmon and snapper.

But I’ve found most people need to supplement.”

I eat 3 cans of wild caught Alaskan salmon a week for dinner most weeks.

And, I take two Nordic Natural filtered fish oil Omega 3 capsules each day.  This mild tasting form plus the lemon extract they add avoids a fish taste. For me it works 100%!

I also take two capsules of Jarrow MaxDHA because the DHA is the omega 3 that best protects your nerves and brain and your heart.

Also, though Dr Sears doesn’t say so, the effects of omega 3 oils go up greatly if you also completely stop ingesting excessive grains and grain fed animal protein foods with high omega 6 oils and things like MSG that boost inflammation.  This specifically means to never eat refined grain hybrid wheat even though it’s still common for most people to do that.

There are some other things known to keep your telomeres long.

But these three things have so many other benefits and are so doable, I wanted to make them today’s post. 

Labels: ,

Thursday, July 05, 2018

No and low carb and low glycemic foods....Today's post:  Thursday, 7-5-2018

If you have stopped the foods, drinks, and ingredients that cause increased fat or serious illness and exercise well, eating health OK no carb and very low carb and zero glycemic foods will help you lose excess fat and prevent it from returning.

No carb foods:

Slow cooked and needle tenderized beef from grass fed cows and lambs is zero carb and zero glycemic.

Wild caught salmon sautéed in butter from grass fed cows at a low enough temperature.

Wild caught small fish like sardines and herring and others.

US Wellness Meats Braunschweiger if you have a big freezer and can take delivery.

Kerry Gold Dubliner Cheddar

Goat Gouda

Butter from grass fed cows

Eggs from truly pasture fed chickens

Extra virgin olive oil

Organic coconut oil

Bullet Proof Brain Octane

Bullet Proof Ghee

Fruit extracts:  bilberry/elderberry; bilberry; cranberry, and cherry are available.

Organic “half and half” – actually light cream.

Organic heavy cream.

(These last two are not yet available from cows fed only grass so are best used in moderation.)

Very low carb but high nutrition and fiber foods:

Organic spices: ground or diced dried leaves:  ground ginger, ground black pepper, oregano, parsley, basil, ground cayenne pepper.  Mustard with organic ingredients AND no MSG.

Raw or sautéed in an OK fat or oil or lightly steamed green cruciferous vegetables:


Brussels sprouts

Green cabbage

Chard or Swiss Chard

And, Organic onions

Organic garlic

Organic tomatoes

Organic Haas Avocados

Zero glycemic foods with some carbs

Organic tree nuts for those not allergic that have been shelled:

(Their high oil and protein and fiber content result in them being zero glycemic.)

Dry roasted almonds with no oil or salt added; slivered almonds; almond butter without salt or with some sea salt.



Brazil nuts but in moderation due to their high selenium content

Three we think much less of:

Cashews are too high in lectins for most people to eat.

Pistachios usually come unshelled and salted and contain a bit too much sugar to include .

Peanuts have too much omega 6 oils and often contain the mold toxin, aflatoxin; and many people have life threatening allergies to them.

Organic berries with half and half or light cream are close to zero glycemic:

Wild blueberries




There are also valuable and health OK foods that are higher in carbs but are not fatloss foods.

They can be used to gain muscle or add nutrition by some active people who have lost the fat they want to lose; but only in moderation.

Organic Valley Whole unhomogenized milk.

Jarrow Whey from grass fed cows

Cooked garnet yams


And the tree nuts above have zero glycemic carbs.

Labels: ,

Tuesday, July 03, 2018

Tyrosine may help prevent or reverse heart failure....Today's post:  Tuesday, 7-3-2018

Heart failure can kill you.  The current medical treatments for it make it worse and are expensive.

Many of the things that cause heart disease also tend to cause heart failure directly. 

And many of the people who don’t actively stop the actions that cause heart disease and add those that prevent it, have small heart attacks they survive.  Such heart attacks cause heart failure from the damage they do to your heart.

Statin drugs and beta blockers cause heart failure.  (Mercifully there are better and safer ways to prevent heart disease than taking statins; and other ways that cause physical calming without this dreadful side effect from beta blockers.)

Given how pervasive and widespread these causes of heart failure are, it would be great if there were a way to prevent heart failure that you could do easily.

What if you found one that also looked likely to help block or slow Alzheimer’s disease?

Research shows there may be one!

A week ago yesterday on Monday 6-25 Medical News Today had the research suggesting this is the case:

Targeting 'microtubules' could prevent heart failure
A study from the Perelman School of Medicine investigates an interesting new target for the prevention of congestive heart failure: microtubules.

-----Original Message-----
From: Medical News Today
To: iehealth
Sent: Mon, Jun 25, 2018 10:07 am
Subject: MNT daily newsletter - June 25, 2018

Taking tyrosine may help keep microtubules in your heart flexible and active instead of stiff.

When they are stiff, just after the heart beats the overall chamber fails to relax to allow enough inflow and outflow.

I once showed some evidence of that.

Now that I've been taking vitamin K2 longer and added NattoMax and have stopped excessive stimulants and I am currently less stressed, this may have gotten better.
My blood pressure is much closer to optimum and I have dramatically fewer premature beats.  Both of these things worsen and may cause heart failure but are now far less. 

What this article adds is that these microtubules exist and have these effects and that taking tyrosine may help your heart walls stay flexible or become more flexible!

This is great news because taking tyrosine first thing each morning has such high benefits otherwise.  So I’ve taken it for years.

And, because those are established, if you take tyrosine because it might help prevent heart failure, you know it will do those things for sure.

The amino acid tyrosine is a precursor for both dopamine and thyroid hormone.

Many years ago one of the US Armed Forces, the Air Force I think, found that having their front line combat people take 1,000 mg of tyrosine as two 500 mg capsules each morning enabled them to be more proactive and resilient and perform better.

I’ve taken it ever since I read that.

Clearly this provides a mild but real antidepressant effect.  And keeping a high enough thyroid level provides both mental and physical energy plus it helps prevent excess fat gain.

It’s always nice to find that something you already do has even more benefits!

Lastly, the article seems to suggest that taking tyrosine also prevents the clumping and build up of beta amyloid that causes the nerve damage of Alzheimer’s disease!    

Labels: , ,

Friday, June 29, 2018

Health protection while fasting....Today's post:  Friday, 6-29-2018

If fasting is a day when you eat no food or take in about 500 calories or less, for fatloss
or from lack of access to food or for religious observance for some religions, people do it on purpose or in emergencies.

It can be harmful if certain electrolytes become too high or too low.

And, if done for extended periods it can be harmful due to your body becoming depleted in key nutrients.

Only bother at all with fasting for fatloss if you have already been doing the basics for a long time or at least have recently upgraded to them the rest of the time and will continue with them.

A. The overall strategy:

Take or consume vitamins and electrolyte minerals and bone building compounds and some health OK fats and maybe fiber.    Take some fruit concentrate supplements.

B.  If fasting, include broth from steaming a mix of organic cruciferous and high carotene vegetables.  These contain many vitamins and minerals and hundreds of essential micronutrients.

If eating low cal, include organic cruciferous and nonstarchy vegetables, some health OK fats or oils and health OK protein.

C. For extended fasting or extended very low calorie eating, take a good multivitamin plus minerals each day.  Take one or more chewable lozenges a day of vitamin methyl B12.

For very low calorie eating, a whole boiled egg some days and a small piece of cooked liver some days and a quarter avocado some days in addition to the vitamin and mineral supplement can add a LOT of nutrition. Each of these 3 foods is almost a multivitamin by itself.  It’s also desirable to take a fruit extract or two each day.  Bilberry extract and cranberry extract are available and desirable for anyone but are close to essential for people doing this

D.  Many extended fasting plans include bone broth that and add some sea salt and ghee or add Kerrygold butter which has salt. 

It’s also important for bone health and heart health and electrolytes to take 600 to 800 mg a day of magnesium.  Besides being an essential electrolyte, magnesium is essential for your heart and bones.

This kind of bone broth provides sodium and phosphorus. 

You can also take a potassium supplement. That’s important to do if fasting.  Even two 99 mg doses a day is better than none!

The supplements proline and trimethyl glycine and hyaluronic acid with collagen also are good to take as they provide bone building blocks. (NOW, Source Naturals, & Drs Best sell those.) 

Taking the vitamins above plus 1,000 mg added vitamin C and the fruit extract supplements also help with bone health.

E.  Continuing effective strength training with lower weights can help maintain your muscle and bone and other lean tissue.

This post was inspired by the Medical News Today article a week ago:

What to know about the 500-calorie diet
A person on a 500-calorie diet eats only about a quarter of the recommended daily intake. This may be beneficial for some people, but also comes with many risks. In this article, we look at research on the 500-calorie diet, explain what people need to consider before trying the diet, and provide alternative diets.
-----Original Message-----
From: Medical News Today
To: iehealth
Sent: Fri, Jun 22, 2018 10:09 am
Subject: MNT daily newsletter - June 22, 2018

They make other points but include the ones I list here.

For social events, it’s simplest to do fasting and social events on different days.

For some people it’s not possible to mix them.  The other people feel threatened or try to keep you from fasting or both. Plan around this if you can at all so they happen on different days.

For people who are already OK with you being health oriented and who are at least somewhat health oriented too, it can be possible.

For people in good health who follow good health practices now, many of the other points they bring up simply do not happen.  

Labels: ,

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Coffee proven GOOD for your heart!...Today's post:  Tuesday, 6-26-2018

It seems that an intake of 3 or 4 cups a day of coffee was tested to help the mitochondria in heart tissue stay healthy and even facilitate repairs when the heart muscle is damaged.

This is for drinks of coffee spaced throughout the day--  NOT for four at once or 12 or more cups a day or for 4 cups plus a stimulant too.  Those things tend to do the reverse or cause heart rhythm problems.

Also, drip brewed coffee is fine; but percolated and some other methods boost LDL cholesterol over time.

Then too some people prone to anxiety or high blood pressure can have problems with that much coffee.

But otherwise, most of the people who drink no coffee at all to protect their heart are simply proven wrong by this study.

How four cups of coffee might protect the heart

Caffeine is known to protect against heart disease and stroke. A new study finds the mechanism that underpins this protection, and mitochondria are key.

In earlier experiments, the authors of the new study found that caffeine levels equivalent to around four cups of coffee improved the function of endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels.
They also revealed that the benefits that caffeine imparted seemed to involve mitochondria. These, as everyone is well aware, are commonly referred to as the powerhouses of the cell — a description so well known it has achieved meme status.
Mitochondria won their title because, within their membranes, adenosine triphosphate — which is the energy currency of life — is produced.”
Last week’s post analyzed the possible effect of coffee as producing cancer and found it overstated and easily overcome if it exists at all:

 “Drinking coffee

In March, a California judge ruled that Starbucks and other coffee businesses must include cancer warnings on their products.

Despite this frightening announcement, there’s extensive scientific research on coffee which suggests that, if anything, regularly drinking the brew is linked with a reduced cancer risk as well as a range of other health benefits, such as protecting against diabetes and boosting heart health.

That said, doctors recommend limiting your caffeine intake to 400 milligrams per day, or about 3 to 4 standard cups of drip coffee.”

This is weak and confusing coverage in my opinion.  This is what this is about:

Coffee and instant coffee that you drink is made from roasted coffee beans that are then ground and hot water used to extract the active ingredients and flavor.

When foods with any carbohydrate are roasted with high heat it causes the release of acrylamide which has been found to cause cancer in higher doses.

This means that roasted coffee beans do have some acrylamide in them.

Is this likely to cause people who drink coffee or instant coffee to get cancer?

I agree with their apparent view that the answer is probably not.

But what they don’t say is why.

And, they don’t say how to dramatically reduce the risk which is most important.

Here’s what they left out:

Most of the acrylamide people consume comes from toasted NOT organic refined grain hybrid wheat.  If you know to NEVER eat that food  and why and almost never do, you’ll escape enough acrylamide to make the small amount in roasted coffee beans far less dangerous.

The many kinds of antioxidants and cancer preventing substances in coffee beans are so many and so effective, the actual data tend to show coffee drinkers are healthier and less likely to have cancer than people who don’t.

Then too it’s extra important to get organic coffee and instant coffee.  The coffee made from heavily sprayed coffee beans may cause cancer from the herbicides and pesticides; and this risk is in my opinion about 100 times greater than the risk from the tiny bit of acrylamide.

So, consider drinking only organic coffee and instant coffee to prevent cancer if you want coffee that does not cause cancer.

Last but far from least, completely avoid tobacco, its smoke, and nicotine and eat a very low inflammation lifestyle and take supplements that support low inflammation -- and those such as olive leaf extract that tend to prevent cancer.  

Labels: , ,

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Experts guide to low carb for fatloss....Today's post:  Thursday, 6-21-2018

Most people talk of diets to lose fat.  They refer to eating less until you weigh less and then thinking you can resume eating more and still weigh less.

Not only do people who do this keep their fat, they add to it if they do this.  Worse, they get even fatter a recent study found if they do it over and over again!

So such diets not only don’t work, they fatten you.

But permanent fatloss without excess hunger IS possible if you consistently do the things that cause it.

In our last series of posts we included doing the basics that produce permanent fat loss.

The summary of that is to:

Boost your ability to overcome challenges and achieve goals and discover your strongest reasons to want fatloss. Act to cause fatloss in ways that are rewarding or make you feel empowered.

Stop eating and drinking the most fattening and things and those most harmful to your health. 

Eat organic vegetables and fruit and health OK protein foods and fats and oils and spices. And, drink chilled water and tea and coffee.

Drink some red wine in light moderation before dinner. Drink other alcoholic drinks very infrequently or not at all.

Do the exercises each week that effectively add to or keep healthy bone and muscle AND also do some of those that time efficiently keep you fit and tend to burn fat also.

Solve problems specific to you that block fatloss.

Those can include too little exercise and slow recovery from exercise and too much sitting.

They also can include bacteria in your gut that promote fatloss.

Last week we posted on two ways to overcome those two specific blocks to fat loss.

This week’s post is about ways to do ongoing periodic cutbacks in calories and carbs that do remove fat that stays off because you find a version that keeps fat off you that you can keep doing.

People who eat a higher than average amount of health OK protein foods and other health OK foods --
-- AND eat fewer calories or carbs only part of the time lose as much fat as people who eat less every day. 

But because this is sustainable, studies show the fat tends to stay off. 

People who eat less every day and then resume eating more and don’t follow these basics get fatter instead!

Ben Pakulski is an expert in adding muscle and keeping excess body fat low.

Adding muscle to do so is my preference; and as I’ve been posting, I believe using the whole body vibration platform, the ”vibe”, from Bullet Proof besides my current strength training will do so besides burning more calories each week.

Earlier this week, Ben sent an email with his take on using low carb eating and periodic cutbacks to lose fat and stay lean.

I’ve decided to make some changes in what I eat several days a week and do two days a month of intermittent fasting to add to my use of the Vibe to see if I can get better results faster and can keep the fat off that I use.

Here’s is what Ben had to say:

“Here are your 6 tips to maximize fat burning at rest or while you sleep:

1) Do Not Eat carbs with every meal. 

Even if you’re really lean, eating carbs constantly will ensure your body is really good at using sugars and less effective at using fat at rest. 

Being metabolically flexible will allow your body to use body sources for fuel and ketones are an amazing energy source. 

2) Consume most of your carbs around your workout. 
There is no essential carb, and to be honest if you never ate one again you would be great and flourish. The problem is that it’s hard to avoid all forms of sugar in our society. 

[Whey and unhomogenized whole milk from grass fed cows provide protein and other growth factors to help your exercises build muscle and bone and keep them from becoming less.  But they do have some carbs as lactose.  That has been shown NOT to boost blood sugar by itself; and consuming this carb after effective exercise allows your muscles to use the protein to build and repair and not need to use the protein to replace the energy they used.]

3)"Train Low" 
Train on low carb, or even fasted. 
You will feel amazing once you get used to it and it will massively improve your ability to use fat for fuel. 

[Then after you exercise take in the protein and carbs to rebuild and repair.]

4) Your fat sources matter. 
People get lost in the numbers of macros. 
This is a huge mistake. 
Fats absolutely have different functions and impacts on the body.

[DHA and eating wild caught fish high in omega 3 oil;  and avocados and extra virgin olive oil for monosaturated fat and their micronutrients; and butter, cheese, and ghee from cows fed only grass all have different benefits.  Grain oils with excessive omega 6 and bioconcentrated herbicides and pesticides; and hydrogenated oils are harmful enough to never eat at all if you can manage it. So, Ben is totally correct about this one!]

Don’t obsess over macros if you’re not obsessing over source. 

5) Consider Fasting. 
I know this goes against most muscle building advice, but the reality is that you won’t lose muscle unless fasting is prolonged. 
Try one day per week until noon and see how you feel. 

Here’s a tip: If you feel like crap, you NEED IT MOST. 

6) Use MCT oil 
MCT is incredible for mental and physical energy. 

I don’t train without it. 

The type of MCT oil does matter. For brain benefits you want C8 MCT. 
Which is not a brand, but an isolated portion of the MCT. 
Most MCT is C10 or C12. 
You want it to be organic and sourced from Coconuts.”

In practice C8 MCT is a brand today.  Bullet Proof’s Brain Octane supplies the MCT 8 Ben recommends.

They also say why Ben is correct that this is the MCT oil that will help fat loss:

"Caprylic Acid (C8): ~6% of coconut oil. C8 has potent anti-microbial properties (way more potent than lauric acid) to help you maintain a healthy gut, and it is the fastest to metabolize in the brain. (This is Brain Octane Oil.)Apr 7, 2015"

"What Is MCT Oil Really? MCT Oils vs. Coconut Oil Explained "

It seems that Lauric acid is processed like other saturated fats in the liver and C8 is burned more directly by your nerves and muscles so it tends to use more calories and not be used for fat deposits.

Overdoing coconut oil as I have been for the lauric acid may no longer be needed now that I'm taking monolaurin again which has more antiviral effects.  And if C8 also has more antiviral effect, I'll be even better off using Brain Octane for that reason too.

Lauric acid does not have the fatloss effects the C8 in Brain Octane does AND it may be partly the cause of my boost in LDL cholesterol

It may be that going back to using coconut oil only as needed and once each week on Saturday and once Sunday will lower my LDL and help me lose 5 pounds.

It may be that using Brain Octane again for my daily chilled coffee with whole milk instead of coconut oil will not keep me from the 6 pound weight loss I'm likely to get by stopping that much coconut oil intake.

It may be that eating Braunschweiger or more Dubliner Cheese instead of grass fed yogurt for protein and using apple cider vinegar instead of yogurt to mix with powdered Parmesan Cheese may cut carbs enough to help.

And, two Mondays a month, I can skip kiwi fruit at breakfast and have no carbs from just after I have my whey and whole milk to that same time on Tuesday.  And, I can fast from my Monday breakfast and until dinner time.

If I find this sustainable and it causes fat loss and weight loss the first month I do it that I then increase the following month instead of gaining it back by repeating this and adding the VIBE that may put me on the way to losing my excess belly fat! 

Labels: ,